POST-HARVEST TECHNOLOGIES IN NIGERIA’S LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY: STATUS, CHALLENGES AND CAPACITIES

 

 

 

 

 

BY

 

 

 

OLUMIDE O.  TEWE Ph.D

Professor of Agricultural Biochemistry

Department of Animal science,

University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 

 

And

 

 

Mpoko Bokanga Ph.D

Biochemist

Crop Improvement Division,

International institute of Tropical agriculture (IITA)

Ibadan, Nigeria

 

 

 

 

A Presentation at the GFAR – GIPhT

Workshop, 17 – 21 September 2001

Entebbe Uganda


1. Introduction

 

Nigeria’s livestock resources include 13, 885, 813 cattle; 34,453,724 goats; 22,092,602 sheep; 3,406,381 pigs and 104,247,960 poultry, (Rim 1992).  Traditionally managed stock is over 85% for all species, while commercially managed ones is only significant for poultry at 13.8% and to a lesser extent for pigs at 3.24%, as shown in Table 1. Poor productivity and high mortality of stock, which characterize this industry is largely explained by the inadequacy of feeding the right quantity and quality of feeds to the various livestock species.  Feed insufficiency is due to stiff competition with need for human food, particularly for the fast growing and prolific monogastric species poultry and pigs, and for concentrate mixes for ruminants.  The food insufficiency is further compounded by the huge foreign debt and currency devaluation, which militate against feed importation.  These have drastically reduced feed availability hence decline in utilization of installed feed milling capacity, (Table 2).  The result is production and marketing of livestock and products at astronomically high and unaffordable prices as depicted in Table 3.

 

Compound animal feed is usually made up of energy, filter materials, proteins, minerals and micro ingredients as shown in table 4. Energy sources are largely made up of intact plant resources that are directly utilizable by man, while other components can be made up from by products of food crops, marine, terrestrial and arian protein sources, minerals and other synthetic materials.  Compound feeds can be made up from the un conventional sources, mainly cassava and other ingredients from agro-industrial by products which abound (Table 5), if these are properly processed to meet the criteria for their efficient utilization by the different livestock species.

 

2                    STATUS OF FEED PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES

 

A study conducted for the presidential task force on alternative feed formulation kin Nigeria, (Omole and Tewe 1991) revealed that processing technologies available for feedstuffs in Nigeria include: - drying, smoking, roasting, boiling, chopping/chipping/slicing, shredding, grinding, grating, fermenting, extrusion, ensiling, chemical treatment and compacting.   Technologies commonly used at the peasant farmer level consist of: -

1                    Sun drying on open fields, concrete slabs, abandoned motor highways, rock surfaces or in cribs.

2                    fermenting in earthenware, pots or other containers, streams and edges of rivers.

3                    Smoking by firewood, sawdust, palm kernels, oil palm fruit fibre and dried straw materials listed above.

 

At the medium scale, there is a wide variety of equipment that are available for processing feedstuff.  These consist of: -

 

1    Dryers of various capacities.  These are fuelled by firewood, gas, coal, sawdust or even solar energy.  The materials that can be dried vary from grains to tubers and legume seeds, industrial by-products and crop residues.

2    Oil expellers also exist largely for the mechanical or chemical extraction of oils from oil seed cakes and separation of the cakes.

3    Other kernel/nut separators, shellers for maize, fruit extraction equipment which, which separates the juice and discards the fibrous parts. Manual slicing and chipping equipment for cutting tubers, graters fermentators and frying equipment particularly for processing cassava and discarding the peels, pelting machines which are adapted, meat mincers and oil processing equipment, milling machines for processing grains, smocking equipment for  production of fish meal and other animal by products, mineral block (salt lick) making machines, fish and rabbit pelletizers, urea/ molasses / crop residue block making machines (for briquetting), alkali treatment equipment  and heat protein extraction machine.

 

It is notable that most of these equipment that are potentially available for medium scale operation are located in research institutions and some universities.  They have, therefore, not been popularized. Indeed, the processes that are usually adopted in livestock feeding in most institutions in the country are still the traditional or sophisticated and imported ones, thus indicating a yawning gap in local fabrication and dissemination of such equipment in the country.

 

 

Processing technologies in large scale operations are mainly restricted to: -

1                    Drying and storage of grains.

2                    Oil extraction equipment for mechanical or chemical extractions.

3                    Extrusion equipment, largely for oil seed cakes notably soybean.

4                    De-hulling facilities.

5                    Pelletizers, in a few commercial settings.

6                    Meat rendering equipment located on a few large farms and institutions in the country.

 

Other equipment in large-scale operations are sited in industries involved with food processing.  The by products from these are useful for livestock feeding. 

 

In another study conducted for the UNDP in Nigeria (Tewe 1999), traditional methods exist for sun drying and storage of meat and fish.  Batch processing of fish meal has also been developed by an institute.  Storage technologies developed in the country include inert atmosphere silos for grains, trench storage for cassava, hermetic storage for grains, the maize crib, solar trays and multi purpose dryer powered by kerosene stove. 

 

3.      CHALLENGES OF THE LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY

 

In take of animal protein at present is 4.82g/caput/day (Tewe 1999) as against a minimum required of 35g recommended by the FAO.  A World Bank assisted National Agricultural Research Strategy Plan (1996 –2010) has projected animal protein supply of 5.322g/caput/day, for the estimated 159 million populations in 2010.  To attain this various percentage expansion in herd population and productivity have been proffered as shown in table 6.  Feed supply id a major determinant in attaining these targets.  In the recommendations of the presidential task force on alternative formulation of livestock feeds (1989 – 1992) accelerated development of cassava and sweet potatoes for industrial; and livestock feed usage was advocated.  With an assessment of feed ingredient requirement for livestock as shown in table 7, Nigeria requires a total of 4.3 million tones of cassava flour.  Converting this to fresh basis will be about 15 million tones, which is about half of the 33 million tones produced annually.  Expanding usage of this in the livestock industry will check the cycle of glut and expand the production of cassava.  Estimates of crop residue availability fro within the country as in Table 8 shows that processed far exceeds requirements for livestock feeds, for example 61 million metric tones of crop residues can be obtained annually from major cereals and legumes alone.  All of Nigerian cattle will consume just 41% of this all year round, while sheep and goats will consume 21% of the available crop residues to meet all of their feed requirements, if only these are processed into acceptable and digestible forms. 

 

In a review by Fetuga and Tewe (1980), it was noted that several of the available by products and wastes are mostly fibrous materials whish have limited value for non ruminant animals.  Enzymatic supplementations and palletized feeds allow increased usage of fibrous residues in the non-ruminant feeding.  Even for feeding ruminants, they need to be processed to maximize the utilization of annotated nutrients as most of these residues have high lingo cellulolytic contents apart from other anti nutrients.  There is also considerable variation in the composition of the feed ingredients due to rental differences and inadequate post harvest processing techniques and poor quality control.  Processes that readily come to mind include: - grinding, briquette, pelletizing, alkali treatment, ensiling, heat treatment with standard regulations to meet minimum criteria of standards for optimal productivity of stock.

 

The marketing of livestock, which has been hampered by non existing processing technologies for on-farm and small scale value-added animal products also need to be seriously addressed.

                                                                                                                                   

4.         CAPABILITIES OF AFGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

 

The role of the Nigerian Government in the livestock sector has been largely in the area of policy formulations to assist producers in accelerating production at costs that consumers can afford.  The perennially changing policies and low expenditure of less than 5% of the National Budget on agriculture, strongly militates against this laudable objective.  Poor infrastructure and lack

 of micro-credit supply are also serious hindrances. 

 

Perhaps the most serious constraints remain the training, research and development capabilities in Nigeria and most of the African continent.  The World Bank Assisted National Agricultural research Project (NARP) operating in Nigeria between 1996 and 2000 also gives a picture of the problems.  The programme aimed at formulating coordinated research projects involving all areas of agriculture, forestry and fisheries and wildlife with active participation of all stakeholders.  Scientists from the National Research institutes and universities participated in problem solving, on-farm research projects that have been identified and documented in the National Agricultural Research Strategy Plan.  There were serious problems of disbursement of funds and lack of cooperation between the research institutes and the universities’ secretariat.  Collaboration between research institutes and universities need to be encouraged as the latter have considerable high man power quality in their staff and students to address the agricultural research, training and development problems in various agro ecologies in the country.  Faculties of agriculture in universities should be active partners in the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS).

 

A serious deficiency in research planning and coordination has been lack of market consideration and orientation among researchers.  Research programmes are therefore largely carried out by scientists who are insensitive to the market needs of the respective commodities.  Market oriented research will first ensure identification of marketable commodities, market standards specifications, which should drive the identification of scientists to develop a package that will solve the research and development problems associated with such commodities.  Choices of scientists can the cut across Research Institutes, universities and relevant industries, and practicing farmers. 

 

Training of students in research institutions and universities is also hampered by the incapability of scientists and researchers that are insensitive to practical realities of agriculture and commodity market requirements. 

 

The World Bank Assisted Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs) have played the major role in Agricultural Extension for the past two and a half decades.  With World Bank funds winding up and inadequate funding from within, the expensive system is fast crumbling.  The adoption of livestock technologies nationwide has been very low.  The general impact of research findings is more apparent with commercial farmers, than with the traditional livestock producers.  It is time to recognize the role of the medium scale, innovative farmer as a valuable tool in technology development and dissemination in Africa.  Hitherto, they have been largely neglected in preparation, execution and funding of agricultural programmes in Africa.

 

A serious attempt to identify and document these groups of farmers with programmes to collaborate with them in pilot projects and dissemination of technologies, will make up for the gap presently created by lack of funding support for ADPs.

 

It should also be mentioned that training of resource poor farmers by practically oriented NGOs, researchers and extensionists are very valuable and rewarding.

 

5.      RECOMMENDATIONS

 

a.      Market Oriented Multi Disciplinary Research Packages

 

It is crucial in identifying post-harvest issues related to different industries and commodities to strive as much as possible to indicate this from a commodity market perspective.  Identification of markets is critical to sustainability of potentially adoptable technologies.  Studies packaged along these lines with appropriate technologies to be developed will enable identification of relevant actors to participate in such projects, which will usually be multi disciplinary in dimension. 

 

 

 

 

b.      Farm-Gate Processing

 

There is need to develop farm gate processing technologies, whereby most of the crop residues can be processed into forms that can be used for livestock feeding on such farms or marketed in drier, storable forms to larger urban markets.

 

c.       Equipment Fabrication and Efficiency

 

Due to a lot of variability in processed crop residues, there is need to study the variations in production output of various equipment to meet the raw material needs of different livestock milling concerns.  Identification of imported compounds of such equipment and studies to encourage their fabrication locally.  Fabrication of meat processing equipment for value added products at the small and medium scale should be developed.  Also the overall economic efficiency of the production system should be assessed.  

 

 

d.      Product Standardization.

 

There is the need to ascertain that the products obtained from different processing techniques meet minimum criteria of standards for use in different  feed milling concerns.  To this end investigations should include physical and chemical characterization of feed ingredients, and effects of such feeding stuffs on acceptability and productivity of different livestock, poultry and fish species at different phases of production.  Storability of such primary and by-products also needs ascertaining.

 

e.      Training and Publicity

 

There is lack of awareness of the availability of different processing techniques and fabricated equipment.  Livestock feed millers, crop and livestock farmers, agricultural scientists and all with governmental and private interests concerned with agricultural production and processing, should be adequately informed and if necessary, trained in the use of these technologies.  Proven practically oriented and innovative medium scale need to participate in such training and dissemination exercises.

 

f.        Credit Supply

 

The suitability of the aforementioned processing technologies rest on their relevance in product development for specific markets.  Research targeted at marketable commodities can easily attract loans, and other credit supplies, as they will have a payback advantage.  Cooperative users scheme, whereby groups of farmers can be organized to own centrally located equipment should be encouraged.  Farm produce and waste can then be processed there, and through their agents dispatched to the various markets. 

 

Studies should bear in mind, the need for infrastructure such as electricity, transportation, and storage facilities in recommending such equipment for different localities.

 


Table 1: Livestock Population in Nigeria

 

Species

Total

Traditionally managed (%)

Commercially managed (%)

Cattle

13,885,813

99.50

0.50

Goats

34,453,724

99.97

0.03

Sheep

22,092,602

99.84

0.16

Pigs

3,406,381

96.76

3.24

Chicken

72,400,856

86.17

13.83

Source: RIM (1992)

 

 

Table 2: Capacity and utilization of feed mills in Nigeria

 

 

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

Total No of Feed mills

104

189

265

303

414

443

458

463

Total Installed capacity (mt/Hr)

364

605

795

1039

1438

1556

1635

1685

Expected Prodn.

Per Year (Million Tons)

0.7

1.2

1.5

2.0

2.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

Actual Prodn. Per year  (Million Tons)

0.64

0.46

0.55

1.80

0.89

1.14

1.10

0.856

Efficiency of Industry (%)

92

38

37

90

31

57

52

39

Source: Update of Poultry feed industry profile in Nigeria – A memorandum submitted to the Federal Military Government of Nigeria on the Stat e of poultry Industry in Nigeria.

 

 

Table 3: Unit Prices of some Poultry Input and output (N) (1982-1997)

 

 

1982

1985

1988

1997

Maize per Ton

270

650

1800

22,000

Concentrate (perTon)

520

760

2320

30,000

Feed (per 25Kg bag)

8.0

16.50

38.00

500

Eggs  (per Tray of 30)

3.0

6.50

11.50

180

Poultry meat (per Kg)

3.30

7.50

13.00

250

Culled layers (Per One)

6.00

13.00

18.00

300

Source: Tewe (1997)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4: Conventional and Alternative sources of Ingredients for Livestock in Nigeria

 

NUTRIENTS

CONVENTIONAL INGREDIENT

ALTERNATIVE INGREDIENT

 

Energy

Maize

Sorghum, millet, molasses, cassava Chips, Full-fat Soya, Plam Kernel Meal, brewer’s dried grain, oil palm sludge, sweet potato, cassava tubers, Baggase, Discarded Cashew nuts and Cocoa beans.

Filler Materials

Wheat oftfal

Maize offals, wheat offal, Rice bran, Rice husk, Rice polishing, Sorghum offal, Corn cob, Pineapple wastes, orange and lemon wastes, Cashew nut hulls, Cocoa wastes (shells, husks, pods), Cassava, plantain, yam, Cocoa yam peels.

Protein

Fish meal, Goundnut Cake

Pigeon pea, Jack bean, Soya bean, Lima bean, Sword bean, Full-fat Soya, Beniseed Meal/cake, Rubber seed meal, Blood meal, meat meal, meat bone meal, Feather meal, Fish meal, fish slage and Dried Silage products, Shrimp meal, Sheanut oil meal, leaf protein concentrate (LPC)

Minerals

Bone meal, Oyster shell, salt

Periwinkle shells, Limestone, Super phosphate, Calcinised bone meal, meat and bone meal, dicalcium phosphate

Micro Ingredients

Vitamins, Trace minerals, antibiotics, Feed additives, methionine, Iysine

Must be essentially imported

Source: Babatunde (1988)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 5: Conventional and Alternative Ingredients in A typical Non-Ruminant Formulation

 

Nutrient            Conventional                percent             Alternative        Maximun

                        Ingredients                    Ration              Ingredients        Inclusion rate (%)

           

 

Energy              maize                            5                      Sorghum                       5

                                                                                    Cassava                       45

                                                                                    Sweet Potato                15

 

Fibre                BDG                            15                    Maize offal                   10

                        Rice bran                      15                    Wheat offal                   2.5

                                                                                    Sorghum offal               10

                                                                                    Rice husk/bran  5

                                                                                    Cassava peel                10

 

Protein             GNC                            15                    Palm kernel                  15

                        SBM                            15                    Meal                            10

                                                                                    Cotton seed                  10

                                                                                    Cake                            10

                                                                                    Jackbean                      5

                                                                                    Poultry offal                 

                        Fish meal                      3                      meal

                                                                                    Blood meal

 

Minerals           Oyster shell                  7.5                   Periwinkle                    7.5

                        Bone meal                    2.5                   Shell                             5

                                                                                    Limestone                     2

                                                                                    Malt dust

 

Additives

                        Vitamin premix 1

                        Salt                              0.25

                        Others                          0.75

 

Source: Tewe (1997)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 6: Projected yield of livestock products and protein supply by 2010

 

Indices   Poultry  Goat                        Mutton   Beef                        Pork                       Eggs

                                Meat                       Meat

 

 

1993 herd population          

(‘000)                      117,832   34,495                     22,104                     13,947                     4,410                       5,891,600

 

Expansion in number

(‘000)                      100,157   12,073                     7,736                       4,881                       3528                        -

 

2010 projected

number (‘000)        217,989   46,568                     29,840                     18,828                     7,938                       16,349,175*

 

Take-off number

(‘000)                      185,291   23,284                     14,920                     4,207                       5,954                       -

 

Improved Productivity

(Kg)                        1.25                         7.5                           10                            144                          56                            0.05

 

Projected out in Year

2010 (‘000)             231,613   174,630   149,200   605,808   333,424   817,459

 

Animal protein

Yield/annum by year

2010 (‘000)             27,794                     17,755                     24,623                     99,638                     31,696                     89,920

 

Production improvement

Indices by year 2010

 

% Expansion herd

Population             85                            35                            35                            35                            80

 

% Improved take-off           

  rates                     85                            50                            50                            25                            75

 

% Improvement in

  productivity        25                            25                            25                            15                            40

 

% take-off rate      75                           50                            50                            25                            75

 

Notes:    *Calculated on an average of 75 eggs per bird (indigenous and exotic)

                Total animal protein/annum (‘000 kg) = 291,426

Animal protein/caput/annum = 1832.868 g

                Animal protein/caput/day = 5.021 g

Total protein supply from livestock products including milk = 5.021 g x 1.06 = 5.322 g/caput/day

Population estimated in 2010 as 159 million

Source: Shaib, Aliyu, Bakshi (1997)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 7: Alternative Feedstuff Requirement (1995-2000)   (‘000 Tons)

 

Alternative Feedstuff

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Sorghum

4053

4267

4496

4765

4994

5266

Cassava

3316

3492

3678

3898

4086

4308

Millet

4053

4267

4496

4765

4994

5266

S.Potato

1105

1164

1226

1299

1362

1436

Maize offal

737

776

817

866

908

957

Sorghum offal

737

776

817

866

908

479

Rice Husk/Bran

368

388

409

433

454

479

Cassava Peel

737

776

817

866

908

957

Cocoa husk

368

388

409

433

454

479

Rubber seal Meal

368

388

409

433

454

479

Poultry offal meal

737

776

817

866

908

957

Shrimp Heal Meal

368

388

409

433

454

479

Periwinkle Shell

553

582

613

650

681

718

Source: Tewe (1997)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 8: Projected availability of Crop by- products and residues (‘000 Tons)

 

 

By Product

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Rice Bran

255.45

264.14

273.12

282.41

292.01

Rice Straw

1703.02

1760.93

1820.80

1882.70

1946.72

Maize offal

20.16

21.31

22.53

23.81

25.17

Maize stover

8919.56

9471.88

10011.7

10582.5

11185.6

Cow pea vines

8619.56

8800.57

8985.89

9174.08

9366.74

Soy bean Haulm

566.72

597.89

630.77

665.45

702.06

Beni seed haulm

1895.80

1905.27

1914.80

1924.37

1934

Ground nut haulm

3302.32

3345.25

3388.74

3432.8

3477.42

Cotton seed cake

10.78

11.01

11.24

11.47

11.71

Cassava peels

545.33

566.60

588.70

611.66

635.51

Yam peels

1.57

1.60

1.63

1.66

1.69

S.potato Peeld

4.28

4.39

4.50

4.61

4.72

S.potato vines

0.61

0.63

0.64

0.66

0.67

Sugar cane tops

10.23

101.74

102.24

102.76

103.27

Source: Tewe (1997)

 

List of References

 

1        Babatunde G. M. (1998), Alternative Formulations of Livestock Feeds in     

Nigeria.  Proceedings at a Presidential Task Force on Alternative Feed 

      Formulation for Nigeria.

2    Fetuga B. L. and Tewe O.O. (1985) Potentials of Agro Industrial By-products and Crop Residues as Animal Feeds, Nigeria Food Journal 2 (2): 136 –141.

3    Omole T. A. and Tewe O. O. (1991) Processing Technology for Nigerian Feed Stuffs.  Document Prepared for the presidential Task Force on Alternative Feed Formulation for Nigeria. 183 pages.

4    Rim (1992) Resource Inventory and Management Limited, Nigerian Livestock Resource Vol. 1 Executive Summary.

5    Shaib B, Aliyu A. and Balesh J. S. (1997), Nigeria: National Agricultural Research Strategy Plan 1996 – 2010. Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources page 271.

6    Tewe O.O. (1997) Sustainability and Development:  Paradigms from Nigeria’s Livestock Industry. Inaugural Lecture- Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Ibadan 42 pages.

7    Tewe O.O. (1997) Post Harvest Technologies from Research Institutes and Universities in Nigeria.  Compiled by Technological Vision organization (TECHNOVISOR) for the United Nations Development Programme (Oyo State June, Ibadan 72 pg.